Original Article

Olfactory Dysfunction in Mild-Moderate-Severe COVID-19 Patients


Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Health Sciences University Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey


Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Aksaray University, Aksaray Education and Research Hospital, Aksaray, Turkey

B-ENT 2022; 18: 59-66
DOI: 10.5152/B-ENT.2022.21501
Read: 191 Downloads: 102 Published: 01 January 2022

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that affect the occurrence of coronavirus disease 19-related olfactory dysfunction and the duration of this resulting symptom.

Methods: Patients over 18 years old with coronavirus disease 19 polymerase chain reaction (+) were included in the study. Patients were examined in 3 groups based on the severity of the infection they had and were asked to subjectively evaluate their sense of smell before and after coronavirus disease 19. Their olfactory dysfunction durations were compared statistically.

Results: We scanned 349 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 19 and 97 (27.79%) of these patients had olfactory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction was seen more often in mild coronavirus disease 19 patients. Coronavirus disease 19 infection was more severe in elderly patients and it was milder in women. Dyspnea and cough, suggesting involvement in the lower respiratory tract, were significantly higher in the group with a severe course. The olfactory dysfunction lasted significantly shorter in patients with nasal symptoms. In 34.02% of the patients, olfactory dysfunction was the first symptom, and coronavirus disease 19 infection was significantly milder in patients whose first symptom was olfactory dysfunction. There were 39 patients (group A; 40.2%) whose olfactory dysfunction lasted 0-7 days, 36 patients (group B; 37.1%) whose olfactory dysfunction lasted 8-30 days, and 22 patients (group C; 22.7%) whose olfactory dysfunction lasted longer than 30 days.

Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction is a common and important symptom of coronavirus disease 19 infection, and its clinic and incidence frequency in societies has not been fully determined. It was observed that the majority of patients recovered within a month.

Cite this article as: Tüzün K, Abeş D. Olfactory dysfunction in mild-moderate-severe COVID-19 patients. B-ENT. 2022;18(1):59-66

EISSN 2684-4907