Title:
Biological conditions affecting chronic inflammation in upper airways in children
Authors:
N. Bernheim , A. Doyen , P. Eloy , S. Halewyck , P. W. Hellings , N. Mardyla and J. B. Watelet 1 2
Institutions:
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, HUDERF, Brussels; Centre Comprendre et Parler, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Clinique3Notre-Dame Tournai, CHwapi, Tournai, Belgium and Service ORL, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc UCL; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, CHU Mont-Godinne UCL, Yvoir, Belgium; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, UZ Brussel VUB, Jette, Belgium; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Clinique Sainte-Elisabeth, Namur, Belgium; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
Keywords:
Inflammation; upper airways; child; infection; allergy; cystic fibrosis; gastro-oesophageal reflux
Pages:
41 - 71
Abstract:
Biological conditions affecting chronic inflammation in upper airways in children. Problems/objectives: A child’s immune system cannot depend on a memory-type immune response and it also induces cytokine responses less efficiently. Biological conditions like allergy or cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency or gastro- oesophageal reflux can induce and maintain background inflammation in children’s upper airways, making newborns and children more susceptible to upper airway infections and inflammations. This paper will describe in brief how aller- gy, cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency, nasal and paranasal anatomical variants, and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) can affect the immune and inflammatory responses in uppe4r airways and how they could interfere with imm4unity devel- opment and maturation in children. Methodology: Literature review. Results: Chronic inflammation induced by infection, allergy, cystic fibrosis or immune deficiency is multifactorial in origin and is strongly influenced by physiological, immunological, anatomical, environmental and, above all, genetic parameters. Finally, the direct role played by nasal and paranasal anatomical variants and GOR is also discussed. Conclusions: These conditions should be screened systematically in all children presenting chronic clinical features of upper airway inflammation.
Issue:
Suppl. 19, 2012


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Biological conditions affecting chronic inflammation in upper airways in children