Title:
Defence mechanisms of olfactory neuro-epithelium: mucosa regeneration, metabolising enzymes and transporters
Authors:
J.-B. Watelet*, M. Strolin-Benedetti** and R. Whomsley***
Institutions:
*Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University, Belgium; **UCB sa, Colombes, France; ***Shire Pharmaceuticals, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK
Keywords:
Olfactory; regeneration; cytochrome; transporters
Pages:
21 - 37
Abstract:
Defence mechanisms of olfactory neuro-epithelium: mucosa regeneration, metabolising enzymes and trans- porters. The olfactory neuro-epithelium is highly sensitive to chemicals and its direct microbiological environment. It also plays a role as an interface between the airways and the nervous system, and so it has developed several defence instruments for rapid regeneration or for the detoxification of the immediate environment. This review illustrates three of these defence mechanisms: regeneration of the epithelium, local production of metabolising enzymes and xenobiotic transporters. Toxicants can inflict damage by a direct toxic response. Alternatively, they may require metabolic activation to produce the proximate toxicant. In addition to detoxifying inhaled and systemically derived xenobiotics, the local olfactory metabolism may fulfil multiple functions such as the modification of inhaled odorant, the modulation of endogenous signalling molecules and the protection of other tissues such as the CNS and lungs from inhaled toxicants. Finally, the permeability of nasal and olfactory mucosa is an important efficacy parameter for some anti-allergic drugs delivered by intranasal administration or inhalation. Efflux or update transporters expressed in these tissues may therefore significant- ly influence the pharmacokinetics of drugs administered topically.
Issue:
Suppl. 13, 2009


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Defence mechanisms of olfactory neuro-epithelium: mucosa regeneration, metabolising enzymes and transporters