Facial trauma
N. Peeters , P. Lemkens , R. Leach ,B. Gemels , S. Schepers and W. Lemmens
Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Head and Neck Surgery, Ziekenuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Belgium; Department of Emergency Medicine, Kliniek Sint Jan, 1000 Brussel; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Belgium
Facial trauma; facial injury; fractures; nose; orbit; midface; mandible; assessment; treatment
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Facial trauma. Patients with facial trauma must be assessed in a systematic way so as to avoid missing any injury. Severe and disfiguring facial injuries can be distracting. However, clinicians must first focus on the basics of trauma care, following theAdvanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system of care. Maxillofacial trauma occurs in a sig- nificant number of severely injured patients. Life- and sight-threatening injuries must be excluded during the primary and secondary surveys. Special attention must be paid to sight-threatening injuries in stabilized patients through early referral to an appropriate specialist or the early initiation of emergency care treatment. The gold standard for the radiographic evaluation of facial injuries is computed tomography (CT) imaging. Nasal fractures are the most frequent isolated facial fractures. Isolated nasal fractures are principally diagnosed through history and clinical examination. Closed reduction is the most frequently performed treatment for isolated nasal fractures, with a fractured nasal septum as a predictor of failure. Ear, nose and throat surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons and ophthalmologists must all develop an adequate treatment plan for patients with complex maxillofacial trauma.
Suppl. 26.2, 2016

Facial trauma