Management of burn wounds of the head and neck region
S. Jennes , B. Hanchart , E. Keersebilck , T. Rose , O. Soete , PM. François,H . Engel , F . Van Trimpont , C. Davin , 1 M. Trippaerts , B. Vanderheyden , L. Etienne , C. Lacroix , S. Teodorescu , S. Mashaekhi , P. Persoons , D. Baekelandt , S. Hachimi Idrissi andJ.-B. Watelet
Burn Wound Center, Queen Astrid Military Hospital, Rue Bruyn 1, 1120 Neder-over-Heembeek, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU UCL Dinant-Godinne-Namur, Docteur Thérasse, 1 B-5530, Yvoir, Belgium; Department of Emergency Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Major burn; burn shock; fluid resuscitation; smoke inhalation injury; cooling; escharotomies; facial burn wound
107 - 126
Management of burn wounds of the head and neck region. Management of the severely burned patient is very often a challenge, not only due to major disturbances in anatomy and physiological processes, but also because the relatively low incidence of this pathology in both civilian and military practice results in care providers’lack of experience. The purpose of this educational document is to provide doctors confronted with these formidable trauma patients with basic management guidelines as well as some practical tips. In summary, and most importantly, these patients should be treated as any other multitrauma patient. First aid is essential and can be provided by non-medical staff. Initial medical management should focus on the usual, familiar trauma algorithms of ABCDEF from the emergency management of severe burns (EMSB) manual or theABCDEs of the manual of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) or advanced burn 2 life support (ABLS). Medical care should proceed through the following steps – Step one: establish a reliable intravenous infusion; step two: protect the airway; step three: establish and maintain a haemodynamic state compatible with sufficient organ perfusion in order to reduce aggravation of the burn wounds and increase overall survival likelihood; step four: provide analgesia with adequate sedation and provide anaesthesia for escharotomy, fasciotomy or other surgical injuries; step five: maintain normothermia; step six: feed the patient by starting enteral nutrition as early as possible; step seven: prevent infection using antiseptic wound management, systemic antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis.All of these intricate steps require continuous reassessment and adjustment, but the existence of other wounds (blast injuries, penetrating and blunt trauma) even further complicates the management of burn casualties.
Suppl. 26.1, 2016

Management of burn wounds of the head and neck region