Nasal manifestations of systemic diseases
E. Prokopakis , V. Nikolaou , A. Vardouniotis and M. Jorissen 2 1 2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Crete School of Medicine, Heraklio, Greece; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospitals of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
Nose, sinuses, systematic, mucosa
171 - 184
Nasal manifestations of systemic diseases. Objectives: Signs and symptoms of the sinonasal tract may be originated in any organ system. Distinguishing these from original sinonasal disease poses a great diagnostic challenge. The ENT specialist usually faces an unresponsive or relapsing case, with an atypical presentation. We address this issue by trying to provide a wider perspective when dealing with sinonasal manifestations. Methodology: We reviewed the literature exploring heterogeneous groups of diseases and systemic conditions that might interfere with normal sinonasal physiology. The most current and valid information have been included in an effort to delineate such manifestations and clarify the distinguishing signs and tests. Results: A great variety of systemic conditions with sinonasal manifestations, including connective tissue, autoimmune, infectious, vascular, hematological, gastrointestinal, and endocrine diseases, were included. We address their distin - guishing characteristics and diagnostic work-up. Conclusions : Signs and symptoms of the sinonasal tract can originate from either local or systemic disorders. The keys to dealing with such disorders are understanding the patterns in which systemic diseases can manifest, and using special diagnostic­tools­specific­to­each­condition­to­confirm­or­rule­out­particular­diagnoses.
Vol. 9, 2013, 3rd trimester

Nasal manifestations of systemic diseases