Pre-hospital interventions: introduction to life support systems
J.-C. de Schoutheete , S. Hachimi Idrissi and J.-B. Watelet
Department of Surgery. Queen Astrid Military Hospital, Bruynstraat 1, 1120 Brussels, Belgium; Department of Emergency Medicine. Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185. 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185. 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Emergency medical services; disasters; otorhinolaryngology
41 - 54
Pre-hospital interventions: introduction to life support systems. Crucial decisions in pre-hospital emergency care are often made; therefore, a tactical emergency medical support team (TEMS) should maintain the capacity to capture the situation instantaneously and in all circumstances. However, low exposure to severe trauma cases can be a weakness for emergency specialists, which makes pre-hospital assessment more difficult. Pre-hospital interventions (PHI) are usually classified in Western countries into BLS (basic life support) and ALS (ad- vanced life support) levels, according to the methods used. This review introduces tactical combat casualty care for med -i cal personnel (TCCC) guidelines, designed for basic care management under fire or in a hostile environment. The phases of TCCC are: (1) care under fire (or in an unstable environment); (2) tactical field care; and (3) tactical evacuation care, and are mainly dependent on the different hazard zones (hot, warm or cold). In a mass casualty situation due to disaster or cataclysm, standardized protocol and triage are unquestionably required for identifying the environmental risks, for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities, and for the initial management of casualty care. When considering conflict situations, or chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events, processes always start at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be iniâ–¯tiated promptly. Otorhinolaryngologists should be aware of PHI procedures for completing preliminary assessment and management together with emergency specialists or TEMS.
Suppl. 26.1, 2016

Pre-hospital interventions: introduction to life support systems